Franklin, Diamant, Mercer, Vazquez, Vetter
ADHD ADHD AND PA ADHD and Exercise
KIN 250 | Social Psychology of Physical Activity |
What are the Benefits of Physical Activity?
Many studies have come to the general consensus that exercise is beneficial to a person’s overall health and well-being. People that partake in a proper training program by combining aspects of resistance training, stretching, and aerobic exercises are seen to have an improved quality of life, as well as a reduction in the onset of chronic diseases, when compared to their sedentary counterparts. As Warburton, Darren E.R. et al states in his article published in 2006,
“Health Benefits of physical exercise: the evidence,” physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for a widening variety of chronic diseases. Based on Warburton’s findings, both men and women saw a significant reduction in relative risk of death by taking part in an exercise program (20%-35% of recent studies found up to a 50% reduction) From this information we see
that exercise has beneficial pharmaceutical effects when defending against the onset of chronic diseases, and that exercise contributes to improving the health of patients who have already established a disease.
What is ADHD?
According to Trevor Archer and Richard Kostrzewa, “The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage.” ADHD can also be considered a learning disorder. It is a very common disorder that cannot be cured, however there are treatments available. Individuals with ADHD may experience aggression, difficulty focusing, anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, forgetfulness, and mood swings. Scientists are not certain as to what causes ADHD, but they blieve that genes play a dominant role. This disorder occurs most commonly in children, but it's known to lead through adolescence and into adulthood.
Physical Activity and ADHD
Recent studies show
a positive correlation between exercise and the treatment of ADHD. In one study, exercise was
prescribed in addition to methylphenidate (Ritalin), the prescription drug for ADHD. The research showed that the group that exercised had increased levels of
dopamine, and higher brain activity in the right frontal and temporal lobes. The frontal lobe contains
most of the dopamine sensitive neurons, and the temporal lobe is associated with processing sensory information into meaning for better retention. This suggests that
exercise may be beneficial as a supplement to prescription medication such as Ritalin, in order to increase
long – term benefits.
Archer, T., Kostrzewa, R. M., Department of Psychology, Psykologiska institutionen, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Faculty of Social Sciences. . Göteborgs universitet. (2012). Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: Regional deficits and development trajectory.Neurotoxicity Research,21(2), 195-209. doi:10.1007/s12640-011-9260-0
CHOI, J. W., HAN, D. H., KANG, K. D., JUNG, H. Y., & RENSHAW, P. F. (2015). Aerobic exercise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Brain research.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise,47(1), 33-39. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000373
Warburton, Darren E.R., Nicol, Crystal Whitney, Brendin, Shannon S.D. (2006). Health Benefits of Physical Exercise: The Evidence.Canadian Medical Association Journal http://www.cmaj.ca/content/174/6/801.full.pdf+html